Google Translate has been using neural network learning algorithm for its translations since September. So it's able to learn the languages via shaping neural networks with datasets on Internet. https://research.googleblog.com/2016/09/a-neural-network-for-machine.html
Actually it learns the pure meaning of the sentences. That makes possible cross translations. It seems like the system builds a hidden interlingua. They mentioned that situation:
“Is the system learning a common representation in which sentences with the same meaning are represented in similar ways regardless of language — i.e. an “interlingua”? Using a 3-dimensional representation of internal network data, we were able to take a peek into the system as it translates a set of sentences between all possible pairs of the Japanese, Korean, and English languages.”
It works for 8 languagues. As far as i see, it works perfectly for English to Turkish translations.
By the way, artificial neural network learning algorithm is a model which is based on biological neural system. With genetic algorithm, it can evolve. This method can be applied to many places. You can see this on that video, neural network learns to play Super Mario:
Generating music in Bach's style:
Learning Van Gogh's Art:
And that's what happens in machine learning: