THE ORIGINS OF GREEK WORDS

Article about Greek
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Dedicated to language greek

There are three layers of words in the vocabulary of Modern Greek:
a) Ancient words belonging to the language from its very beginnings or entering it in antiquity.
b) Words which entered the language from the start of the Christian era till the 19th century.
c) Words that have entered the language since the start of the 19th century.

The first layer comprises:
a) Original Greek or Indo-European words. These belonged to the original language which is spoken by the ancestors of the ancient Greeks when they came and settled in the land which they later named Hellas.
b) Pre-Hellenic words. These words adopted by the Greeks from the people who were living in “Greece” before they arrived.
c) Words that entered from other languages:
Middle Eastern: αγγαρεία (agkaría), παράδεισος (parádisos), άλφα (álfa), βήτα (vita), περιστέρι (peristéri), πυραμίδα (piramída), σάκος (sákos).
Hebrew: αμήν (amín), χερουβείμ (herouvím), Μεσσίας (Messías), Πάσχα (Pásha), Ιωάννης (Ioánnis), Μαρία (María), Μιχάλης (Mihális).
Latin: ροδάκινο (rodákino), κελί (kelí), κάρβουνο (kárvouno), ράσο (ráso), Μάρτιος (Mártios), παλάτι (paláti), σούβλα (soúvla), πανί (paní).

The second layer comprises words from:
Balkan languages: σανός (sanós), μανούρι (manoúri), γκιόνης (gkiónis).
Italian: (kapetánios), (kapélo), (barboúni), (fráoula), (makarónia), (koubáros).
Turkish: γιαούρτι (yiaoúrti), μεζές (mezés), σουγιάς (souyiás), χασές (hasés), μιναρές (minarés), καρπούζι (karpoúzi), καφετζής (kafetzís), τενεκές (tenekés).

Τhe third layer comprises words from:
French: ρεκλάμα (rekláma), μπλούζα (bloúza), ραντεβού (rantevoú).
English: βαγόνι (vagóni), μπιφτέκι (biftéki), ρεκόρ (rekór), τραμ (tram), τουρισμός (tourismós).

Some of these foreign words, once were Greek that were adopted by other languages and then returned back into Greek in a different word. Thus, the Ancient Greek καμάρα (kamára) became camara, camera in Latin and then re-entered in Greek as κάμαρα (kámara), κάμερα (kámera). The Ancient Greek βαλανείον (valaníon) >Latin balneum>Italian bagno>Modern Greek μπάνιο (bánio). Τhe Ancient Greek κάρυον ποντικόν (kárion pontikón) has returned via Turkish as φουντούκι (fountoúki). The Greek word σύκοφτον (síkofton) has re-entered in Greek from Turkish (köfte) as κεφτές (keftés).

THEY ARE GREEK!

-The ancient Greek βούτυρον / βούτυρος (βους + τυρός)>Latin butyrum>ancient English butere>modern English butter (German Butter, French beurre, Italian burro).
-The ancient Greek πάπυρος>Latin papyrum>medieval French papier>medieval English papir>modern English paper (French papier, German Papier).
-The Hellenistic word κυριακόν>ancient German kirihha>ancient English cirice>medieval English chirche>modern English church (modern German Kirche).
-The ancient Greek σχέδιον>Latin schedium>Italian schizzo>Dutch schets>English sketch>modern Greek σκέτς, σκίτσο.
-The ancient Greek σκηνή>Latin scaena / scena>Latin diminutive scenarium>Italian scenario>English scenario (French scenario)>modern Greek σενάριο.
-The ancient Greek ποινή>Latin poena>French peine>English pain.
-The ancient Greek καύμα>Latin cauma>Italian calma>modern Greek κάλμα.
-The ancient Greek πειρώμαι>Latin pirata>English pirate>modern Greek πειρατής.
-The ancient Greek πρεσβύτερος>Latin presbyter>ancient English preost>medieval English preist>modern English priest.
-The ancient Greek κληρικός>Lartin clericus>ancient English cleric & clerc>modern English clerk & clergy.
-The Greek επίσκοπος>Latin episcopus>ancient English bisceop>medieval English bishop>modern English bishop.
-The Greek μοναχός>Latin monachus>ancient English munuc>modern English monk.
-The ancient Greek χάρτης>Latin cartum>Italian carta>English chart & card>modern Greek κάρτα.
-The ancient Greek βόμβος>English bomb
-The ancient Greek βούβαλος>american buffalo.
-The Greek δίπλωμα (διπλώνω, διπλούς)>English diploma & diplomat etc.

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