Helen Adam (December 2, 1909 in Glasgow, Scotland – September 19, 1993 in New York City) was a Scottish poet, collagist and photographer who was part of a literary movement contemporaneous to the Beat Generation that occurred in San Francisco during the 1950s and 1960s. Though often associated with the Beat poets, she would more accurately be considered one of the predecessors of the Beat Generation.
Songwriter, playwright, poet, artist, and photographer Helen Adam was born in Glasgow, Scotland and studied at Edinburgh University before moving to the United States in 1939. As a teen in Scotland, she established herself as a balladeer and published songs under the name “Pixy Pool.” She would later write narrative poems which evoked traditional ballad forms and themes, but which revised and subverted Romantic notions of womanhood and desire partly by focusing on the macabre side of fairy tales. She settled in California in 1949 and took Robert Duncan’s workshop in 1953, afterward becoming an active participant in the San Francisco Renaissance of the 1950s and 1960s. Furthermore, she quickly became known for her incantatory and mystifying oral performance style. She moved to New York City in 1964, where she became an influence on the Beat poets, especially Allen Ginsburg. She also devoted herself to photography and collage, and produced two versions of her opera, San Francisco’s Burning.
Adam’s books of poetry include Turn Again to Me and Other Poems (1977), Gone Sailing (1980), and The Bells of Dis (1984). Her work was included in Donald Allen’s famous anthology The New American Poetry (1945-1960), and she was awarded the American Book Award in 1981. Her work is collected in A Helen Adam Reader (2007, edited by Kristen Prevallet).
William Auld (born 6 November 1924 in Erith (Greater London) – died 11 September 2006 in Dollair) was a British (Scottish) poet, author, translator and magazine editor who wrote chiefly in Esperanto.
Auld was born at Erith in Kent, and then moved to Glasgow with his parents, attending Allan Glen's School. After wartime service in the Royal Armed Forces, he studied English literature at Glasgow University, and then qualified as a teacher.
In 1960, he was appointed to a secondary school in Alloa and he remained there for the rest of his life. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1999, 2004, and 2006, making him the first person nominated for works in Esperanto.
His masterpiece, La infana raso (The Infant Race), is a long poem that, in Auld's words, explores "the role of the human race in time and in the cosmos," and is partly based on The Cantos by Ezra Pound.
Auld began to learn Esperanto in 1937 but only became active in the propagation of the language in 1947, and from then on wrote many works in Esperanto. He edited various magazines and reviews, including Esperanto en Skotlando (1949–1955), Esperanto (1955–1958, 1961–1962), Monda Kulturo (1962–1963), Norda Prismo (1968–1972), La Brita Esperantisto (1973–1999) and Fonto (1980–1987).
He was Vice President of the Universal Esperanto Association (1977–1980), President of the Academy of Esperanto (1979–1983), and President of the Esperanto PEN Centre (1999–2005). He donated his personal collection of nearly 5000 books in and about Esperanto to the National Library of Scotland, where it is now housed, in 2001
He died in Dolair/Dollar, Clackmannanshire and is buried in Dollar churchyard. The grave lies on the approach path to the church from the main road
Robert Burns (25 January 1759 – 21 July 1796), also known familiarly as Rabbie Burns, the National Bard, Bard of Ayrshire and the Ploughman Poet and various other names and epithets, was a Scottish poet and lyricist. He is widely regarded as the national poet of Scotland and is celebrated worldwide. He is the best known of the poets who have written in the Scots language, although much of his writing is in English and a light Scots dialect, accessible to an audience beyond Scotland. He also wrote in standard English, and in these writings his political or civil commentary is often at its bluntest.
He is regarded as a pioneer of the Romantic movement, and after his death he became a great source of inspiration to the founders of both liberalism and socialism, and a cultural icon in Scotland and among the Scottish diaspora around the world. Celebration of his life and work became almost a national charismatic cult during the 19th and 20th centuries, and his influence has long been strong on Scottish literature. In 2009, he was chosen as the greatest Scot by the Scottish public in a vote run by Scottish television channel STV.
Robert Louis Stevenson (born Robert Lewis Balfour Stevenson; 13 November 1850 – 3 December 1894) was a Scottish novelist, poet and travel writer, most noted for writing Treasure Island, Kidnapped, Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, and A Child's Garden of Verses.
Born and educated in Edinburgh, Stevenson suffered from serious bronchial trouble for much of his life, but continued to write prolifically and travel widely in defiance of his poor health. As a young man, he mixed in London literary circles, receiving encouragement from Andrew Lang, Edmund Gosse, Leslie Stephen and W. E. Henley, the last of whom may have provided the model for Long John Silver in Treasure Island. In 1890, he settled in Samoa where, alarmed at increasing European and American influence in the South Sea islands, his writing turned away from romance and adventure toward a darker realism. He died in his island home in 1894.
A celebrity in his lifetime, Stevenson's critical reputation has fluctuated since his death, though today his works are held in general acclaim. In 2018, he was ranked, just behind Charles Dickens, as the 26th-most-translated author in the world.